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(Page numbers are for the published version of the book and are shown for use with the page numbers given in the index.)


Front Matter

Version History

Endorsements i

Publisher Credits vi

About the Authors ix

Foreword xv

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii


1. Introduction 1

Open Source: A Different Way of Doing Business 1

Innovation Happens Elsewhere 2

Jumping In 4

Understanding Open Source 5

Communities 9

Who This Book Is Intended For 12

Open Source as Business Strategy 14


2. Innovation Happens Elsewhere 15

Open Source Is a Commons 15

Can the Commons Make a Difference? 16

The Commons and Software 18

Open versus Closed 18

Use of the Commons: Creativity and Conversations 19

Innovation Happens Elsewhere 27


3. What Is Open Source? 29

Open Source in Brief 29

Philosophical Tenets of Open Source 32

Open Source and Agile Methodologies 39

Common Open-Source Myths, Misconceptions, and Questions 45

Open Source and Community 52

The Secret of Why Open Source Works 60

Variations on Open Source: Gated Communities and Internal Open Source 67

Open Source: Why Do They Do It? 71

What Is Open Source? 73


4. Why Consider Open Source? 75

Business Reasons for Choosing to Open Source Your Code 76

Creating Your Business Model and Following Through with It 99

Measuring Success 100

An Example: The Innovation Happens Elsewhere Strategy 101

Business Reasons for Using Open-Source Products 106

Why Consider Open Source? 110


5. Licenses 111

What a License Does 113

What a License Does Not Do 114

More on Copyright ... 114

... And a Quick Word on Patents 115

The Licenses 116

Dual Licensing 128

Supplementing the License--Contributor Agreements 130

Licenses for Documentation 131

Licenses 135


6. How To Do Open-Source Development 137

The Infrastructure Needed for an Open-Source Project 138

Software Life Cycle 147

Building a Community 158

Ending an Open-Source Project 175

Joining an Existing Open-Source Project 177

Open Source within a Company 181

How to Do Open-Source Development 183


7. Going with Open Source 185

Deciding to Do Open Source 185

How to Prepare to Do Open Source at Your Company 187

Getting Approval from Your Company 205

Problems You Can Expect to Encounter 217

Going with Open Source 222


8. How To Build Momentum 223

Marketing Your Project 224

Focus on Your Users and Contributors 229

Community Outreach 245

Harvesting Innovation 247

Welcome the Unexpected 248


9. What To Avoid--Known Problems and Failures 249

Not Understanding Open Source 249

Don't Needlessly Duplicate an Existing Effort 251

Licensing Issues 254

Design Issues 255

Code Issues 256

Trying to Control Too Much 259

Marketing Issues 263

Tension between an Open-Source Project and the Rest of Your Company 265

Community Issues 267

Lack of Resources 269

Recovering from Mistakes 270


10. Closing Thoughts 273


Appendix A: Resources 281

Further Reading 281

Websites of Interest 282

Tools 283

Licenses 283


Appendix B: Licenses 285

Apache Software License 286

Artistic License 290

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) 293

FreeBSD Documentation License 294

GNU Free Documentation License (FDL) 295

GNU General Public License (GPL) 301

GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) 307

IBM Common Public License (CPL) 315

Microsoft Shared Source License for CLI, C# and JScript 319

Microsoft Shared Source License for Windows CE.Net 321

MIT or X License 324

Mozilla Public License (MPL) 325

Open Publication License 333

Sun Community Source License (SCSL) 335

Sun Industry Standards Source License (SISSL) 350

Sun Public Documentation License (PDL) 356


Appendix C: Contributor Agreements 361

Apache Contributor Agreement 362

Free Software Foundation Copyright Assignment Form 365

Mozilla Contributor Assignment 369 Contributor Assignment 371

Project JXTA Contributor Assignment 373


Appendix D: Codename Spinnaker 377


Bibliography 383

Index 387

Innovation Happens Elsewhere
Ron Goldman & Richard P. Gabriel
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